An introduction to binary
What are binary flags, and how can you use them?
How binary can be used to create characters in fonts
An introduction to hexadecimal (aka base 16)
How can you describe the colour you want?
An introduction to Boolean logic
Practical examples of when you'd use logic gates
How to apply Boolean logic to individual bits, and why you'd want to!
How to scale your random numbers into the correct range
Comparing the efficiency of sorting algorithms
Comparing the efficiency of searching algorithms
How to encrypt and decrypt mono-alphabetic substitution ciphers
The principles behind creating movement in your program